R : Sound and Vibration Terms, Definitions, Units, Measurements ...
R • sound reduction index (laboratory measurements)
R' • apparent sound reduction index (field measurements)
rad (radian) a derived SI Unit of angle measurement. One radian is the angle made at the centre of a circle by an arc whose length is equal to the radius of the circle.
Since the circumference of a circle = 2πr, then one radian equals 360°/(2π) ≈ 57.3° and π/2 radian equal a right angle (90°)
To convert radian to degrees multiply the radian by 180/π : see also angles
rad/s (radian per second)
see angular velocity
rad/s2 (radian per second-squared)
see angular acceleration
Random Incidence Microphone also known as diffuse field microphones. Used for measurements in reflective room and chambers as opposed to the Free-field Microphones, used for measurements in more open spaces. The presence of the microphone should not to effect the measurement.
Because of their importance in acoustics we have a full page on measurement microphones
See also •
free-field microphones •
Random Vibration a vibration whose instantaneous amplitude is not specified at any instant of time.
Rapid Speech Transmission Index
RASTI • rapid speech transmission index
Rate of Fluid Flow
under volumetric flow rate
the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient
a disk on a torsion suspension designed to measure the particle velocity
in a fluid.
RC • room criteria
Reactive Sound Intensity
Reactive Sound Field
Reactivity Sound Index
(of a number or quantity) having no imaginary
Real Time Analyser (RTA) an instrument which uses a number of narrow bandwidth filters connected to a display to give a visual indication of the amplitude in each frequency band simultaneously or at the same time.
Real Time Frequency Analysis measurement of octave or third octave band noise where all the filters are measured simultaneously, ensures no loss of data.
Real World +4 dB in the real world there are factors that can reduce the effectiveness of hearing protectors: imperfect fitting and the condition of the protectors are two examples. To allow for this the HSE - UK Government Health and Safety Executive recommends the addition of 4 dB to the calculated level at the ear.
a time window that has a zero value outside the specified time record and unity within the record length. In the FFT
analyser, the rectangular window is actually no window at all. It is also called rectangular weighting, or uniform weighting, and is used when the signal to be analysed is a transient
rather than a continuous signal : see also windowing
under preferred frequencies
Reference Quantities expressed in SI units
Reference Particle Velocity (vo) = 5 x 10-8 m/s ≡ 0 dB
Reference Sound Energy (Wo) = 10-12 J ≡ 0 dB
Reference Sound Energy Density (wo) = 1 pJ/m3 = 10-12 J/m3 ≡ 0 dB
Reference Sound Exposure (Eo) = (20 μPa)2 s ≡ 0 dB
Reference Sound Intensity (Io) = 1 pW/m2 = 10-12 W/m2 ≡ 0 dB
Reference Sound Power (Po) = 1 pW = 10-12 W ≡ 0 dB
Reference Sound Pressure (po) = 20 x 10-6 Pa ≡ 0 dB in air
Reference Sound Pressure (po) = 1 x 10-6 Pa ≡ 0 dB in liquids and solids
Reference Vibratory Acceleration (ao) = 1 μm/s2 ≡ 0 dB
Reference Vibratory Displacement (ξo) = 1pm ≡ 0 dB
Reference Vibratory Force (Fo) = 10-6 N ≡ 0 dB
Reference Vibratory Velocity (vo) = 1 nm/s ≡ 0 dB
Reference Voltage (vo) = 1 Volt ≡ 0 dB
See also our decibel reference tables
Reflected Sound Wave
Residual Sound Intensity
Resonance is the tendency of a mechanical or electrical system to vibrate or oscillate at a certain frequency when excited by an external source, and to keep oscillating after the source is removed. If something tends to have resonance it is said to be resonant.
See also • anti-resonance
phenomenon of a system in forced oscillation such that any change, however small, in the frequency of excitation results in a decrease in a response of the system.
● Note : the quantity that is the measure of response should be indicated; for example, velocity resonance.
Resonance Frequency Definition IEC 801-24-06, frequency at which resonance exists
● Note : in case of possible confusion, the type of resonance must be indicated; for example, velocity resonance frequency.
Response Definition IEC 801-21-47,
of a device or system, the motion, or other output, that results from a stimulus
(excitation) under specified conditions. The kinds of input and output being utilized must be indicated.
Reverberation is the persistence of sound as a result of multiple reflections and may continue for a second or more depending on the reverberation time
sound that persists in an enclosed space, as a result of repeated reflection or scattering, after the sound source has stopped.
See also • anechoic
Reverberation Chamber a specially constructed test room in which all the surfaces are hard and reflective so that none of the noise produced will be lost by
absorption, often used for the measurement of
sound power levels of noisy machines.
Reverberation Time (RT), RT60 or T60 the time it takes for the sound pressure level to fall by, 60 dB after the sound has been turned off. 60 dB corresponds to a decrease in sound pressure by a factor of 1000.
Reverberation Time Definition IEC 801-31-07, of an enclosure, for a sound of a given frequency or frequency band, time that would be required for the sound pressure level in the enclosure to decrease by 60 decibels, after the source has been stopped
Sabine Reverberation Time Equation in 1898 W C Sabine also came up with the formulae relating
reverberation time with sound absorption and room volume: T = 0.161 V/A, where:
V = room volume in m3
A = α x S = equivalent absorption surface or area in m2
α = absorbent coefficient or attenuation coefficient
T = RT60 = reverberation time in s, seconds
S = absorbing surface in m2
The above equation is normalized to the speed of sound in air = 343 m/s
It follows if you know the reverberation time you can calculate the absorption coefficient and vice-versa.
Measuring reverberation times also enables the calculation of the total sound absorption of a room. The reverberation time varies with frequency.
Reverberation Time is a significant parameter in acoustics : so we have more details
See also • artificial-reverberation • early decay time • schroeder • backward curve integration
RMQ (Root Mean Quad) is used in Vibration Dose VDV measurements to take account of the impulsive nature of these measurements. The procedure is similar to the more commonly used RMS method below except the 4th power average is calculated before taking the ∜ - quad root or 4th root.
RMS (Quadratic Mean)
is the square root
of the arithmetic mean
of the squares of the numbers in a series
RMS (Root Mean Square of a time-varying quantity) is obtained by squaring the amplitude at each instant, obtaining the average of the squared values over the interval of interest, and then taking the square root of this average.
RMS Value Definition IEC 103-02-03, for a time-dependent quantity, positive square root of the mean value of the square of the quantity taken over a given time interval
● Note : The root-mean-square value of a quantity may be denoted by adding one of the subscripts eff or rms to the symbol of the quantity
● Note : The abbreviation RMS was formerly denoted as r.m.s. or rms, but these notations are now deprecated.
RMS Value is also known as the effective value
The root-mean-square sound pressure, also known as the effective sound pressure is most often used to characterise a sound wave because it is directly related to the sound energy carried by a sound wave
See also • mean square
also called power spectrum averaging
, calculates the weighted average of the sum of the squared levels. The weighting is either linear
. RMS averaging
reduces random fluctuations in the levels but does not reduce the noise floor
See also other types of averaging
Room Absorption Coefficient
Room Acoustics sound waves are reflected by the walls, ceiling, floor and any object they come into contact with. The reflected wave is modified in various ways. sound absorption is a major contributor, hard reflecting surfaces common in reverberant rooms leave the sound largely unchanged whereas soft absorbent surfaces found in the home produce significant changes.
The changes are frequency dependent which makes things more complicated to predict. In large spaces air absorption can be significant at higher frequencies.
See also room modes
Room Criteria (RC) a single-number for rating room noise. Based on the preferred speech interference level values. Suffixes are added, R for Rumble • RV for Vibration and Rattle • H for Hiss • N for Neutral.
This system is considered by some to more effective than the noise criteria (NC) system.
The B&K 2250 sound analyser, measures RC values.
Room Modes the sound entering a room 'decays' in time due to the sound waves interacting with the room surfaces and objects in the room, see sound absorption for more details. The time taken for the sound to decay is known as the reverberation time.
However rooms may also have one or more modes or
resonances related to the room dimensions and the
wavelength of the sound. These room modes and standing waves can dramatically effect the room's acoustic performance.
Axial Modes are associated with pairs of parallel walls.
Tangential Modes involve four room surfaces
Oblique Modes all six surfaces.
Root Mean Quad
Root Mean Square
Root-power Quantity was introduced in ISO 8000 Annex C and defined as the square root of a power quantity; it replaces and deprecates the term field quantity. It is essential to know which category a measurement belongs to when using decibels (dB) for comparing such quantities.
Example 1: a root power quantity (sound pressure) of 1 pascal = 94 db SPL, add another identical sound source, the total = 2 pascals = 100 dB SPL. Two identical root power sources increase the sound pressure, a sound field quantity by 6 dB, i.e. 20 log (2) = 6dB. See our sound pressure table for more examples.
Example 2: a power quantity (sound power) of 1 Watt = 120 db SWL, add another identical sound source, the total = 2 Watts = 123 dB SWL. Two identical power sources increase the sound power output by 3 dB, i.e. 10 log (2) = 3 dB. See our sound power table for more examples.
See also our sound level calculation page and the IEC decibel definition.
revolutions per minute
RT • reverberation time
RT60 • reverberation time
RTA • real time analyser
Rw • weighted sound reduction index
R'w • weighted apparent sound reduction index
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