# N : Sound and Vibration Definitions, Terms, Units, Measurements etc., ..

*N • N·m • N·m·s • N·s* under

newton

**nano (n)** a SI prefix = 10^{-9} see other SI units

National Physical Laboratory (NPL)

## Natural Frequency

' the frequency at which a resiliently mounted mass will vibrate when set into free vibration. The frequency of oscillation of the free vibration of a system if no damping were present.

### Natural Frequency Definition

IEC 801-24-08, frequency of free oscillation of a system. For a multiple-degree-of freedom system, the natural frequencies are the frequencies of the

normal modes of oscillation
See also • undamped natural frequency

**Natural Logarithm** of a number is its

logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant

*e*, where e is approximately equal to 2.718281828459. The

*natural logarithm* of x is generally written as ln x, loge x,

*NC* ▷

Noise Criteria

Near Sound Field

*NEC* ▷

Noise Exposure Category

*NEF* ▷

Noise Exposure Forecast

## Neper Definition

IEC 801-22-04, unit of level of a field quantity when the base of the logarithm is e = 2,718... . Also, unit of level of a power-like quantity when the logarithm is on the base the square of e, which is equal to 7,389...

● Note 1 : the decineper is one-tenth of a neper

● Note 2 : one neper equals 8,686... decibels

**Newton (N)** the derived SI unit of Force required to accelerate a mass of 1 kg at a rate of 1 m/s^{2} - approximately equal to the gravitational force on a 100 g mass.

Units : kilogram metre per second squared, kg·m/s^{2} : 1 N = 1 kg·m/s^{2} = 10^{5} dynes

**Newton metre (N·m)** the unit of torque. Also used to measure energy or work in which case the SI unit is the Joule J

1 N·m = 1 J = 1 W·s

**Newton metre second (N·m·s)** the unit of angular momentum.

1 N m s = kg m^{2} s^{-1}

**Newton second (N·s)** the SI unit of impulse and momentum. Impulse and momentum have the same dimensions, but momentum is measured in kilogram metre per second.

1 N·s = 1 kg·m/s

*NIC* ▷

Noise Isolation Class

Night Noise Indicator

*NIHL* ▷

Noise Induced Hearing Loss

*NIPTS* ▷

Noise Induced Permanent Threshold Shift

**Nitrile rubber or Buna-N**, is a synthetic rubber copolymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene. Some trade names are: Nipol, Krynac and Europrene.

*NNI* ▷

Noise and Number Index

*Node* under

Sound Waves

**Noise and Number Index : NNI** noise unit developed in the 1960s for rating aircraft annoyance.

NNI = L + 15 x Lg N - 80

where L is the log average Peak PNdB noise level and N is the number of aircraft movements.

35 NNI was rated as low annoyance and 55 NNI high annoyance.

NNI contours were 'drawn' around Heathrow at the time. More recent ISO standards recommend A-weighting for commercial aircraft noise.

See also •
Effective Perceived Noise Level •
Noise Exposure Forecast

## Noise at Work Regulations

The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (the Noise Regulations) came into force for all industry sectors in Great Britain on 6 April 2006 (except for the music and entertainment sectors where they came into force on 6 April 2008).

The aim of the Noise Regulations is to ensure that workers' hearing is protected from excessive noise at their place of work, which could cause them to lose their hearing and/or to suffer from tinnitus (permanent ringing in the ears).

The regulations set exposure limit values and exposure action levels

The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 replace the Noise at Work Regulations 1989.

See also •
sound exposure •
noise dose

For others details see the Government and/or HSE websites.

**Noise Criteria (NC)**, a single number for rating the sound quality of a room, used extensively by the air conditioning industry to test the background levels on offices etc., due to the air-conditioning. The measured octave bands are compared with the NC Curves - based on equal loudness curves. The NC rating is the value of the highest NC curve touched by the measured spectrum.

**Noise Criteria Decisive Band** is the frequency band touching the NC Curve.

The B&K 2250 sound analyser measures the NC curves directly.

See also •
balanced noise criteria •
noise rating curves • room-criteria

Noise Damage Risk Criteria.

Noise Dose

Noise Dose Badge

Noise Dose Criteria

Noise Dose Criterion Time

Noise Dose Meter

Noise Dose per Hour (DOHR)

Noise Dose Threshold Level

Noise Dosimeter

and Sound Exposure

**Noise Emission Level** the dBA level measured at a specified distance and direction from a noise source, in an open environment, above a specified type of surface. Generally follows the recommendation of a national or industry standard.

Noise Exposure

see also •
daily personal noise exposure •
noise exposure action value •
noise exposure limit value •
sound exposure

## Noise Exposure Category (NEC)

used by local planning authorities to determine the suitability of a proposal for residential development. The 4 Noise Exposure Categories described in PPG24 take account of both day and night time noise levels from road, rail and air transport. The NEC levels should not be used for assessing the impact of industrial noise on proposed residential development although at a mixed noise site where industrial noise is present but not dominant, its contribution should be included in establishing the appropriate NEC.

Category A represents the circumstances in which noise is unlikely to be a determining factor.

Categories B & C deal with situations where noise mitigation measures may make the development acceptable.

Category D relates to the situation in which development should normally be refused.

See the UK Government Web Site for more details.

## Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF)

a complex criterion for predicting future noise impact of airports. The calculation is based on the effective perceived noise levels (EPNL) and takes into account each type of aircraft, flight profile, number of flights, time of day, etc. Developed by the US Federal Aviation Agency to generate equal NEF contours for zoning control around airports.

NEF = EPNL + 10 lg10 (ND + 16.7 NN ) - 88 dB :: where ND = number of flights during the day and NN = number of flights at night. More recent ISO standards recommend A-weighting for commercial aircraft noise

See also noise and number index

Superseded by the community noise equivalent level which is based on Leq measurements rather than complex calculations

## Noise Immission Level

is the total quantity of sound impinging on the ear over a long period, expressed in decibels. It can be calculated from LEX, ref. duration and the number of years of exposure.

## Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL)

may be caused by a one-time exposure to an intense impulse sound, such as an explosion, or by continuous exposure to noise levels greater than 80 dBA over an extended period of time.

See also • threshold shift

*Noise Induced* Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS)

## Noise Isolation Class (NIC)

is a single number rating of the degree of speech privacy achieved through the use of an acoustical ceiling and sound absorbing screens in an open office. NIC has been replaced by the articulation class rating method.

**Noise Level** for airborne sound, unless specified to the contrary, it is the
A-weighted sound level.

See also the • IEC Definition of Level

## Noise Mapping

in noise mapping the Lden or LDEN also known as the day-evening-night level are used. Noise maps published on the internet are widely used in Europe and are becoming used in the UK.

## Noise Rating and Noise Rating Curves (NR)

is a method for rating the acceptability of indoor environments for the purposes of hearing preservation, speech communication and annoyance, based on curves developed by Kosten and van Os (1962).

Sound Pressure Levels measured in octave bands are compared with these curves from which a noise rating (NR) is obtained. It will be seen that higher frequencies (where the ear is more sensitive) are given heavier noise ratings than lower ones, information not taken into consideration in usual measurements.

The NR rating is the highest NR Curve touched by the measured octave band spectrum.

**Noise Rating Decisive Band** is the frequency band touching the NR Curve.

The B&K 2250 sound analyser measures the NR curves directly.

In America it is common to use the NC noise criterion curves.

Noise Reduction Coefficient

## Noise Reduction Rating (NNR)

is a single-number rating system used to compare and label hearing protectors. For example the protected dBA = unprotected dBC - NRR.

*Noise Regulations* under the

noise at work regulations.

## Nominal Frequency

or preferred frequency is a specified octave or fractional-octave filter, as defined by the ISO and ANSI Standards.

## Nonlinear System

in mathematics and physical sciences, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input

See also • linear system

**Non-stationary Signal** a signal whose frequency content changes within a captured time frame.

**Normal**, to a surface is a

vector perpendicular to the surface at a given point.

Also known as *normal vector* and *surface normal*

## Normal Mode of Oscillation Definition

IEC 801-24-14, mode of free oscillation of an undamped system

● Note : In general, any composite motion of the system is analysable into a summation of its normal modes, each of which may oscillate entirely independently of the others.

See also other oscillation terms

Normalized Impact Sound Pressure Level

Normalized Level Difference

**NPL : National Physical Laboratory** is the UK's National Measurement Institute and is a world-leading centre of excellence in developing and applying the most accurate measurement standards, science and technology.

*NR* ▷ noise rating and noise rating curves

*NR* ▷ noise reduction

*NRC* ▷ noise reduction coefficient.

*NRDB* ▷ noise rating decisive band.

*NRR* ▷ noise reduction rating

**Null** a low or minimum point on a graph. A minimum pressure region in a room.

**Nyquist Frequency**, twice the maximum frequency of the signal being analysed. It is the minimum rate at which a signal can be sampled without introducing errors.

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