# L : Sound and Vibration Definitions, Terms, Units, Measurements ..

**L** : Sound Level

**La** : Acceleration Level

**LA10** the noise level just exceeded for 10% of the measurement period,
A-weighted and calculated by
Statistical Analysis.

**LA90** the noise level exceeded for 90% of the measurement period,
A-weighted and calculated by
Statistical Analysis.

**LAn** noise level exceeded for n% of the measurement period with
A-weighted , calculated by
Statistical Analysis - where n is between 0.01% and 99.99%.

## The LA10 and LA90 are extensively used for rating traffic noise and Background Noise respectively.

The measurement period should also be stated. For example, LA10 (18-hour) is considered good practice when reporting Road Traffic Noise measurements.

See also : Background Noise

**LAeq** :
A-weighted,
equivalent sound level.
A widely used noise parameter describing a sound level with the same Energy content as the varying acoustic signal measured - also written as dBA Leq. .. More LAeq Details

**LAF** :
A-weighted,
Fast,
Sound Level.

**LAFmax** :
A-weighted,
Fast,
Maximum,
Sound Level.

**LAFmin** :
A-weighted,
Fast,
Minimum,
Sound Level.

**LAIeq** :
A-weighted,
Impulse,
Leq,
Sound Level.

**LAmax** :
A-weighted,
Maximum,
Sound Level

**LAS** :
A-weighted,
Slow,
Sound Level.

**LASmax** :
A-weighted,
Slow,
Maximum,
Sound Level.

**LASmin** :
A-weighted,
Slow,
Minimum,
Sound Level.

LAT : Time Average Sound Level

**Lavg** averaged sound level with selectable Exchange Rate. Results also vary depending if a Threshold Level was used.

**Lavg** = Leq - equivalent level measurements - **only when the Exchange Rate is 3 and the Threshold is set to none**.

**Lavg** = TWA - Time Weighted Average when the Exchange Rates and Threshold Levels are the same and the measurement period was 8 hours.

**LC** :
C-weighted,
Sound Level.

**LCE** :
C-weighted,
Sound Exposure Level

**LCeq** :
C-weighted,
Leq,
Sound Level

**LCF** :
C-weighted,
Fast,
Sound Level.

**LCFmax** :
C-weighted,
Fast,
Maximum,
Sound Level.

**LCpeak** :
C-weighted,
Peak,
Sound Level.

**LCS** :
C-weighted,
Slow,
Sound Level.

**LCSmax** :
C-weighted,
Slow,
Maximum,
Sound Level.

**LCSmin** :
C-weighted,
Slow,
Minimum,
Sound Level.

**Lday : Day equivalent level**
A-weighted,
Leq.
Sound Level, measured over the 12-hour period 07.00 - 19.00 hours.

Also known as Day Noise Indicator and other terms.

**Lden : Day-evening-night equivalent level**
A-weighted,
Leq.
Sound Level, measured over the 24 hour period, with a 10 dB penalty added to the levels between 23.00 and 07.00 hours and a 5 dB penalty added to the levels between 19.00 and 23.00 hours to reflect people's extra sensitivity to noise during the night and the evening.

See also : Community Noise Equivalent Level - CNEL.

**Ldn : Day-night equivalent level**
A-weighted,
Leq.
Sound Level, measured over the 24 hour period, with a 10 dB penalty added to the levels between 23.00 and 07.00 hours.

## Also known as the Day-night Noise Indicator and other terms.

LE : Sound Energy Density Level

**Leakage** in an FFT analyser, the input signal is recorded in time blocks, called time records, and individual spectra are computed from each block of data. Because the input signal period is not synchronised with the duration of the time block, the signal will be truncated at the beginning and end of the block. This truncation causes an error in the calculation, which effectively spreads out, or 'smears', the spectrum in the frequency domain.

## This phenomenon is called leakage or **spectral leakage** it reduces the accuracy of the measured levels of peaks in the spectrum, and reduces the effective frequency resolution of the analysis. Leakage is worst for continuous signals and rectangular window, and it is greatly reduced by use of the Hanning Window, a form of Apodization, which forces the signal level to zero at the ends of the data block.

**Length : l** one of the seven SI base quantities. The SI unit of length is the metre, symbol m

LEP,d : Daily Personal Noise Exposure

LEPN : Effective Perceived Noise Level

LEP,w : Weekly Personal Noise Exposure

Leq : Equivalent Sound Level

### logarithm of the ratio of a given quantity to a reference quantity of the same kind. The base of the logarithm, the reference quantity, and the kind of level must be indicated.

● Note 1 : the kind of level is indicated by use of a compound term such as
sound power level or
sound pressure level.

● Note 2 : the value of the reference quantity remains unchanged, whether the chosen quantity is Peak, RMS, or otherwise.

● Note 3 : the base of the logarithm is indicated by use of a unit of level associated with that base.

**Levening : Evening equivalent level** :
A-weighted,
Leq.
Sound Level, measured during the evening period 19.00 - 23.00 hours.

### Also known as the Evening Noise Indicator and other terms.

LEX,8h : Daily Exposure Level

LF : Force Level

LFNR : Low Frequency Noise Rating

Lg : Logarithm

Li : Impact Sound Pressure Level

LI : Sound Intensity Level

** LIeq : Impulse Weighted Average Sound Level** used in Germany, defined by DIN 45641 : 3 dB Exchange Rate.

**Linear**
a device or circuit with a linear characteristic means that a signal passing through it is not distorted.

**Linear Averaging** the process of adding together a sequence of spectra measurements and then dividing the total by the number of samples. The result is a true arithmetic average on a sample by sample basis. Averaging smooths out Random Noise components in a spectrum.

See also :
Ensemble Averaging •
Exponential Averaging •
RMS Averaging •
Spatial Averaging •
Spectrum Averaging •
Time Domain Averaging

**Linear Exponent of Sound Propagation** IEC Definition,

### with respect to a uniform system, natural logarithm of the complex ratio of particle velocities (or pressures) measured at two successive points separated by unit distance, when this system is assumed to be of infinite length. Also known as **Sound Propagation Coefficient**

**Linear Momentum : p** =
mass x Velocity

### system the behaviour of which obeys the principle of superposition

● Note 1 : the principle of superposition implies that such a system may be described by a set of linear equations.

● Note 2 : a system, which does not have this property, is called Nonlinear System.

Linear Weighting

**Line Drive** an input socket that can also provide power to drive a transducer.

**Line Source** a sound source composed of many point sources in a defined line, such as a train, flow of traffic on a motorway, or constant aircraft take-offs and landings. Sound levels measured from line sources decrease at a rate of 3 dB per doubling of distance.

See also :
Inverse Square Law •
Point Source

**Line Spacing** the frequency difference between two adjacent 'lines' in a Line Spectrum

LI,R : Residual Intensity

LK : Pressure Intensity Index

**Lmax : Maximum Sound Level** a maximum level during a measurement period or a noise event.
Do not confuse with Peak.
Should also include other descriptors i.e.
A, C, L or Z weightings and F, S or I Time Constants.

Sometimes written as Max dB(A), see also

LAmax

**Lmin : Minimum Sound Level** during a measurement period or a noise event.

Should also include other descriptors i.e.
A, C, L or Z weightings and F, S or I Time Constants.

Sometimes written as Min dB(A).

Ln : Logarithm

**Ln**percentile level where 'n' is between 0.01 and 99.9% calculated by Statistical Analysis.

## Usually include a descriptor i.e. A-weighting.
Most common Ln values are LA10 and LA90 levels.

Ln : Normalized Impact Sound Pressure Level

**Lnight : Night equivalent level**
Leq.
A-weighted,
Sound Level, measured overnight 23.00 - 0700 hours.

Also known as the Night Noise Indicator and other terms.

Lnp : Noise Pollution Level

LnT : Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level.

L'nT : Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level.

LnT,w : Weighted Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level.

L'nT,w : Weighted Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level

**Localisation** the listener's ability to respond to time and level differences between both ears as well as spectrum information, correlation and pattern matching

See also : Binaural and our HATS - Head and Torso Sumulator

**Logarithm : Log : log : lg : Ln** Common logarithms are widely used in science and engineering, the logarithm of a physical quantity is used instead of the quantity itself

## Presentation of data on a logarithmic scale can be helpful when the data covers a very large range of values - the logarithm reduces this to a more manageable range. For example 120 dB is 'equivalent' to 1,000,000 relative to 0 dB reference sound level - see the decibel for a more detailed explanation and practical examples.

### The common logarithm is the logarithm to the base 10 and is often written as log10(x) or Log(x) but this can be ambiguous or confusing as Log on a calculator often refers to **natural logarithms**, favoured by mathematicians, with a base of e (~2.718). The binary logarithms
to the base = 2 is used in computer science.

### To overcome this possible confusion, ISO, the International Standards Organisation, recommend:-

log10(x) should be written lg (x) and

loge(x) should be written ln (x).

**Logarithmic Amplitude Scale** critical vibration components usually occur at low amplitudes compared to the rotational frequency vibration. These components are not revealed on a linear amplitude scale because low amplitudes are compressed at the bottom of the scale. But a logarithmic scale shows prominent vibration components equally well at any amplitude. Moreover, percent change in amplitude may be read directly as dB change. Therefore, noise and vibration frequency analyses are usually plotted on a logarithmic amplitude scale.

### natural logarithm of the ratio of any two successive maxima of like sign, in the decay of a single-frequency oscillation

**Logarithmic Frequency Interval** logarithm of the ratio of two frequencies.

See also : Frequency Interval

**Logging** the process of recording noise data results at regular intervals of time so that a 'picture' of the variations can be studied at the end of a long measurement. Usually results are logged at 1 second or 1 minute intervals but it can be as much as 1 hour in some cases.

● Note : modern precision instruments will be sampling at 16 times a second when calculating the logged results to ensure all the sound levels are included.

Longitudinal Wave

### that attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds may be ordered on a scale extending from soft to loud. Loudness depends primarily upon the sound pressure of the stimulus, but also upon its frequency, waveform and duration.

**Loudness Level** of a sound, in Phons, numerically equal to the median Sound Pressure Level in decibels, re 20 μPa of a free Progressive Wave having a frequency of 1,000 Hz presented to listeners having normal hearing facing the source that in a specified number of trials is judged equally as loud as the unknown sound.

**Calculated Loudness Level** : see
BS ISO 532:2017 Acoustics. Methods for Calculating Loudness.

See also : BS ISO 16832 Acoustics. Loudness Scaling by means of Categories.

For measurements see the B&K 2250 Sound Analyser

**Equal Loudness Contours** have been arrived at by group consensus. 0 dB is the threshold of hearing at 1 kHz. However we are less sensitive at low and high frequencies, so the SPL at 10 Hz, for example would have to be increased to 70 dB for the sound to be just detectable, or of equal-loudness - the unit is the
Phon.

See also
BS ISO 226 Equal-loudness Contours. •
Fletcher Munson Curves •
Minimum Audible Field : MAF

**Low Frequency Noise Rating : LFNR** we have no experience in this specific rating and just include it for completeness. We are aware of the 'proposed criteria' produced for Defra by the University of Salford in 2005. If you have current information we would be pleased to hear from you.

See also our comments in the Frequency Weighted Sound Levels section

**Low Pass Filter** signals above the cut-off frequency are attenuated. The attenuation slope is called the roll-off

LPac : Sound Power

Lpeak : Lpk : Peak Sound Level

Lpn : Tone Assessment parameter

Lpt : Tone Assessment parameter

Lpti : Tone Assessment parameter

LRPI : Residual Pressure Intensity Index

LSEL : Single Event Noise Exposure Level

Lta : Tone Assessment parameter

Lv : Velocity Level

LW : Sound Power Level

L-weighting

**LZ** :
Z weighted,
Sound Level.

**LZE** :
Z-weighted,
Sound Exposure Level

**LZeq** :
Z-weighted,
Leq,
Sound Level.

**LZF** :
Z-weighted,
Fast,
Sound Level.

** LZFmax** :
Z-weighted,
Fast,
Maximum,
Sound Level.

**LZFmin** :
Z-weighted,
Fast,
Minimum,
Sound Level.

**LZS** :
Z-weighted,
Slow,
Sound Level.

**LZSmax** :
Z-weighted,
Slow,
Maximum,
Sound Level.

**LZSmin** :
Z-weighted,
Slow,
Minimum,
Sound Level