Ia'' : Airborne Sound Insulation Index - former name for Weighted Apparent Sound Reduction Index, R'w
ICP ® Integrated Circuit Piezoelectric, see IEPE below.
IEC : International Electrotechnical Commission, founded in 1906, the IEC is the world’s leading organization for the preparation and publication of International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. These are known collectively as "electrotechnology
Throughout this Glossary we include IEC Definitions where appropriate
IEPE : Integrated Electronic Piezoelectric, accelerometers with built-in electronics, also known as ICP. Integrated Circuit Piezoelectric.
The built-in electronic preamplifier transforms the high impedance charge output of the sensor into a low impedance voltage signal that can be transmitted over longer distances.
This technique is widely used under other trade names: ICP ®, Deltatron ®, Piezotron ®, etc.
See also • piezoelectric
Imaginary (of a number or quantity), expressed in terms of the square root of a negative number (usually the square root of −1, represented by i or j ).
See also • real
Impact, short duration noise(s), usually associated in acoustics with an object in motion hitting another object.
See also • various impulse definitions.
Impact Sound, produced by the collision of two solid objects. Typical sources are footsteps, dropped objects, etc., on an interior surface (wall, floor, or ceiling) of a building.
Impact Testing, a method of measuring the frequency response function of a structure by hitting it with a calibrated Impact Hammer and measuring the system's response. The instrumented impact hammer has a transducer to measure the input force pulse while the response is typically measured using an accelerometer. The impact imparts a force pulse that excites the structure over a broad frequency range.
● Note 1 : the term impedance is generally applied to a linear system and to steady sinusoidal signals.
● Note 2 : in the case of a transient, impedance as a function of frequency is the quotient of the respective Fourier or Laplace transforms.
● Note 3 : an impedance is the quotient of two quantities the product of which has the dimensions of power or power per unit area.
See also • acoustic admittance • acoustic impedance • acoustic ohm • acoustic resistance • characteristic acoustic impedance • characteristic impedance of a medium • complex acoustic impedance • conjugate impedances • driving point impedance • specific acoustic impedance • specific wall impedance • transfer impedance
Impulse : change in momentum
Impulse : in acoustics, events with a very short duration, see the formal definition and other terms in common use below.
Impulse Response, the way a device responds to an impulse. For example, the reverberation of a room can also be thought of as its impulse response. A great deal of information about a device can be determined by it's impulse response. The frequency response, phase response, and transient response are all tied to this specification.
Impulse Weighted Average Sound Level (Lleq), used in Germany as defined by DIN 45641, 3 dB exchange rate.
1 ) a single or multiple sound pressure peak(s) with a rise time less than 200 milliseconds or total duration less than 200 milliseconds.
2 ) or generally speaking, a noise which manifests itself as a succession of distinct pulses or transients.
See also • impulsive time weightings
Incident Sound, received directly from the source, as distinguished from sound that is reflected from a surface.
See also • direct sound field
Incoherent Sources, sound levels resulting from different sound sources as opposed to a coherent source.
See also other oscillation terms
Initial Time Delay (ITD), the gap in time between the arrival of direct sound and the first sound reflected from a surface of the room to the listener.
In Phase, two periodic waves reaching their maximums and going through zero at the same instant are said to be in phase.
Insertion Loss, the sound level reduction at a given location due to the insertion of a noise control device, expressed in decibels. The difference, in decibels, between the sound pressure level before and after the effect of a sound-attenuating device.
Also known as the instantaneous sound pressure
See also • particle acceleration
See also • particle displacement
See also • particle velocity
Integer : an exact (whole) number, no fractions or decimals points. For example 1, 2, 5, -5, 0 but not 1.25, 3/4. 0.75
Integrating (of an instrument), indicating the mean value or total sum of a measured quantity.
Integrating Sound Level Meter : more correctly known as the Integrating-averaging Sound Level Meter and commonly known as the Leq Meter
Integration in mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume and other concepts that arise by combining data.
Integration in vibration, will convert an acceleration signal into a velocity signal, or a velocity signal into a displacement signal. For this reason, an accelerometer is the transducer of choice because velocity and displacement can be so easily derived from its output.
An vibration integrator is basically a low-pass filter with 6 dB or 12 dB per octave attenuation. Analogue integrators are only accurate over a discrete frequency range.
See also • differentiation
Integrator, an electrical frequency filter used to convert a vibratory acceleration signal to one whose amplitude is proportional to velocity or displacement.
● Note 1 : the International System of Quantities is published in the International Standard ISO/IEC 80000, Quantities and units.
● Note 2 : the International System of Units (SI) is based on the ISQ.
Inverse Square Law, when sound power radiates from a point source, the power is distributed over larger and larger spherical surfaces as the distance from the source increases.
Since the surface area of a sphere of radius r is A = 4·π·r2, then the intensity I (power per unit area) of radiation at distance r is
I = P/A = P/(4·π·r2)
Therefore the energy or intensity decreases (divided by 4) as the distance r is doubled. Measured in dB it decreases by 6 dB per doubling of distance.
Measuring sound pressure levels is more common in the practical world and the sound level decreases by 50% every time the distances is doubled. However we know that intensity I ∝ p2 so the 6 dB rule still applies. Strictly speaking this is not inverse square but inverse proportional, also known as inverse direct law.
See also • Point Source
ISO : International Standards Organisation, creates Standards that provide requirements, specifications, guidelines or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose.
Isotron ® trade name for IEPE. Integrated Electronic Piezoelectric.
Isotropic, is derived from Isotropy i.e. an object or substance which is uniform in all directions. In acoustics it is sometimes used to describe noise sources like loudspeakers arrange in a dodecahedron format to give uniform sound output levels in all directions.
ITD : Initial Time Delay, the gap in time between the arrival of direct sound and the first sound reflected from a surface of the room to the listener.