D : Sound and Vibration • definitions • terms • units • measurements ...
▫ Level Difference
under sound insulation
Daily Acceleration Exposure (Aeq8)
, the vibration a worker is exposed to during a working day, normalized to an 8-hour reference period, taking account of the magnitude and duration of the vibration - more details
See also •
vibration at work regulations •
exposure action value •
exposure limit values
Daily Noise Exposure
) is the time-average
noise level for a nominal 8-hour working day, also known as LEP,d
Daily Personal Noise Exposure
) is the time-averaged
noise level for a nominal 8-hour working day, also known as LEX,8h
, used for assessing the noise exposure
of a worker during a working day. If the noise exposure of workers varies markedly from day to day, the personal noise exposure
may also be assessed over a week rather than a day. This is written as LEP,w
The UK Noise Regulations require action if the following levels are exceeded
The Lower Exposure Action Levels = 80 dBA and a
peak sound pressure of 135 dBC ≈ LCpeak
Measurements should be made with a precision Leq sound level meter equipped with a Cpeak network. Alternatively noise dose meters may be used to check the levels bearing in mind these are usually Class 2 devices
If the Leq (equivalent continuous sound level) is measured over 8 hours, then the LAeq, the LEP,d and the LEX,8h will all be the same.
See also • exposure action values • exposure limit values
Daily Vibration Exposure
hand-arm vibration A (8)
whole-body vibration A (8)
, normalized to an 8-hour period.
Damage Risk Criteria
recommended maximum noise levels for given exposure periods.
See also • the
exposure action value •
exposure limit value
Damping Definition IEC 801-24-19,
dissipation of energy of an oscillating
system with time or distance
The term often refers to the attenuation of sound in a structure owing to the internal sound-dissipating properties of the structure or to the addition of sound-dissipative materials.
The action of frictional or dissipative forces on a dynamic system causing the system to lose energy and reduce the amplitude of movement.
Removal of echoes and reverberation by the use of sound absorbing material. See reverberation time
Damped Natural Frequency Definition IEC 801-24-10, frequency of free oscillation of a damped linear system
Damping Ratio Definition IEC 801-24-11, ratio of the actual damping to the critical damping.
Viscous Damping Definition IEC 801-24-22, damping that occurs when a particle in an oscillating system is resisted by a force that has a magnitude proportional to the magnitude of the velocity of the particle and direction opposite to the direction of the particle
, a digital audio tape recorder.
on-going measurements, stored at regular intervals for downloading to a PC.
, the identity and location of the data that are used in an analysis.
Day-evening-night noise level
Day-evening noise level
Day-night noise level
Day noise indicator
dBA • dBB • dBC • dBD • dB Flat • dB Linear and dBZ - sound level frequency weightings
dB Level, the logarithm of the ratio of a given acoustic quantity to a reference quantity of the same kind. The base of the logarithm, the reference quantity, and the kind of level must be indicated.
Note 1 : the kind of level is indicated by use of a compound term such as sound power level
or sound pressure level
Note 2 : the value of the reference quantity remains unchanged, whether the chosen quantity is Peak
, the RMS
, or otherwise.
Note 3 : the base of the logarithm is indicated by use of a unit of level associated with that base.
dBm and dB(mW), power relative to 1
milliwatt. No reference impedance is assumed, though 600 ohms is common in audio equipment.
dB SIL under sound intensity level
dB SPL, dB(SPL), dBSPL and dBSPL, variations of sound pressure level
dB SWL under sound power level
dBV and dB (1 V RMS), voltage ratio with a reference voltage of Vo = 1.00 volt = 0 dBV, regardless of impedance.
dBW or decibel watt, is a unit for the measurement of the strength of a signal expressed in decibels relative to one watt. It is used because of its capability to express both very large and very small values of power in a short range of number, e.g. 1 watt = 0 dBW, 10 watts = 10 dBW, 100 watts = 20 dBW and 1,000,000 W = 60 dBW.
Power in dBW = 10 lg (Power in W)
DC Coupling the connection of a signal from one circuit to another in a manner that passes both AC and DC components.
See also • AC coupling.
Decay Rate (d)
, is the time taken for the
sound pressure level
in a room to decay - measured in decibels
per second (dB/s) and is related to the reverberation time T
by the formulae T = 60 dB / d.
Decay Rate Definition IEC 801-31-08, at a given frequency, rate at which the sound pressure level decreases with time, for example in a reverberant room
● Note : the unit of decay rate is the decibel per second.
, the time taken for the sound pressure level
to fall by 60 dB - a million to one.
, a relative unit of measurement widely used in acoustics. The dB is a logarithmic
unit used to describe a ratio between the measured level and a reference or threshold level of 0dB. The ratio may be
, voltage or
Decibels compress a wide range of amplitude values to a more manageable set of numbers.
Decibel Definition IEC 801-22-03, one-tenth of the bel
Note 1 : the decibel is more often used than the bel
as a unit of level
Note 2 : the decibel can be defined as a unit of level of a power-like quantity when the base of the logarithm is the tenth root of ten. Also, the decibel is the unit of level of a field quantity
when the base of the logarithm is the 20th root of ten.
See also root power quantity
Decibel Reference Levels
| || Vibration Levels || Sound Levels |
| || Acceleration : La || Velocity : Lv || Particle Velocity : Lv || Pressure : Lp |
| dB || m/s2 || m/s || m/s || Pa, N/m2 |
| 0 dB || 1 x 10-5 || 1 x 10-9 || 5 x 10-8 || 2 x 10-5 |
| 20 dB || 1 x 10-4 || 1 x 10-8 || 5 x 10-7 || 2 x 10-4 |
| 40 dB || 1 x 10-3 || 1 x 10-7 || 5 x 10-6 || 2 x 10-3 |
| 60 dB || 1 x 10-2 || 1 x 10-6 || 5 x 10-5 || 2 x 10-2 |
| 80 dB || 0.1 || 1 x 10-5 || 5 x 10-4 || 0.2 |
| 100 dB || 1.0|| 1 x 10-4 || 5 x 10-3 || 2.0 |
Table Notes :
0 dB is the reference level for each parameter.
The parameters above use the 20 Log formulae for example 20 Log10 p/po) dB for sound pressure levels.
The parameters below use the 10 Log formulae for example 10 Log10
) dB for
sound power levels
See also the acoustic reference quantities list
• sound level calculations
Definitions included in this Glossary are IEC Definitions
Degree ° a measure of angles. There are 360 degrees in a full rotation or circle and 90 degrees (90°) is a right angle. The symbol for degree is °
Although in common use, the degree is not part of the International System of Units (SI) the derived unit is the radian
See also • angles
, time difference that has to elapse after (or before) triggering of a measurement and sampling of the time history data begins. There are situations where entering a trigger delay is useful.
trade name for IEPE (integrated electronics piezoelectric)
, the density of a material is it's
ρ = m/V where ρ is the density, m is the mass and V is the volume.
SI units • kilogram per cubic metre, kg/m3
Density of air
, air density decreases with increasing altitude, as does air pressure.
At sea level and at 20 °C, air has a density of approximately 1.2 kg/m3
At sea level and at 0 °C, air has a density of approximately 1.3 kg/m3
, an electronic circuit that determines the amplitude level of a signal in accordance with certain rules. The simplest type of detector consists of a resistor and a capacitor, which measures the rectified average value of a fluctuating DC signal. A more complex and much more useful type of detector is an RMS
detector whose output is proportional to the energy
in the waveform
, a type of signal whose spectrum consists of a collection of discrete components, as opposed to a random signal, whose spectrum is spread out or smeared in frequency. Some deterministic signals are periodic, and their spectra consist of harmonic series. Vibration signatures of machines are in general deterministic, containing one or more harmonic series, but they always have non-deterministic components, such as background noise
See also bull;
stationary signals •
transients may also be deterministic.
▫ Discrete Fourier Transform
DI ▫ Directivity Index
in acoustics, a mathematical operation that converts a displacement
signal to a velocity
signal, or a velocity signature to an acceleration
signature. The opposite process is called Integration
Diffuse Field Microphone under random incidence microphone
Diffuse Field Distance
Diffuse Field Sensitivity
recording or storing information as series of the numbers 1 and 0, to show that a signal is present
a digital processor that receives a sequence of input data values, executes an operation on them, and outputs a corresponding sequence of values that have been filtered with respect to the input.
Digital Filter Analyser constant percentage (or relative) bandwidth resolution. This is often preferred for acoustic measurements because it best simulates the way in which the human ear perceives sound.
unlike an analogue signal
, which is continuous and contains time-varying quantities, a digital signal has a discrete value at each sampling point.
Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is the analysis of digital signal data. The original analogue signal is sampled at regular time intervals, and an Analogue to Digital converter converts the sampled amplitudes into a number series.
See also • sampling
DIRAC : Dual Input Room Acoustics Calculator
software developed by Acoustic Engineering to measure a wide range of room acoustical parameters, according to the ISO 3382 (room acoustics) and IEC 60268-16 (speech intelligibility) standards. Based on the measurement and analysis of impulse responses, DIRAC supports a variety of measurement configurations and is distributed by Bruel & Kjaer.
Directivity Factor (Q), if a noise source radiates uniformly in all directions, it has a Q = 1.
• Place the same source on the ground so the energy can only radiate hemi-spherically, then the Directivity Factor Q=2.
• Place the source on the ground next to a wall so the radiation is concentrated into a 1/4 of the sphere, then Q=4.
• If the source is placed on the floor in a corner, the sound energy is further concentrated into 1/8th of a sphere so Q = 8.
Directivity Index (DI) is 10 times the logarithm to the base 10 of the Directivity Factor Q. Say for example we buy a piece of equipment with a sound power rating of 80 dB and we install it in the corner of an empty building. The resultant sound power level radiated into the building would be 80 dB + 10·log(8) = 89 dB.
Directivity Pattern, the graphical description, usually in polar co-ordinates, of the response of the transducer as a function of the direction of the transmitted or incident sound waves in a specified plane and at a specified frequency.
Direct Sound Distance
Direct Sound Field
with reference to a spectrum, discrete means consisting of separate distinct points, rather than continuous
See also • tonal assessment
Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
mathematical calculation that converts or transforms a sampled and digitised waveform into a sampled spectrum. They reveal periodicities in input data as well as the relative strengths of any periodic
components. The fast fourier transform
, is an algorithm that allows a computer to calculate the discrete fourier transform
is the change in position of an object in metres and is a Vector
Displacement (ξ) = v/ω = a/ω2, where v =
velocity, a =
acceleration and ω = 2·π·f = angular frequency.
If Displacement (s) = v/ω and Velocity v = a/ω
it follows that 10 m/s2 = 0.01 m/s = 10 μm at 159 Hz
This works for all frequencies, we just chose 159 Hz to keep the numbers simple. We also have a vibration nomogram for downloading.
See also •
angular displacement •
particle acceleration •
particle displacement used in acoustic wave theory •
particle velocity •
standard reference levels table
Dissipation IEC 801-31-29,
conversion of sound energy
Dissipation Factor IEC 801-31-30, ratio of sound energy dissipated as heat to the energy of the incident sound wave.
Distance, change in position of an object in metres - see also displacement.
Distortion Definition IEC 801-21-48,
undesired change of waveform
● Note : Distortion may result from:
a) non-linear relation between input and output;
b) non-uniform transmission at different frequencies;
c) phase shift not proportional to frequency.
Distortion signal components not in the original signal due to non linearities in the system or transmission path.
Divergence Loss Definition IEC 801-23-41, that part of the transmission loss due to the divergence, i.e. spreading, of sound waves in accordance with the configuration of the system.
Note: divergence loss
exists, for example, for spherical waves
emitted by a point source
and is also known as spreading loss
Dn ▫ normalized level difference
DnT ▫ standardized level difference
DnT,w ▫ weighted standardized field level difference
DnT,w + Ctr ▫ weighted standardized level difference with spectrum adaption term Ctr
DOD : Department of Defence - USA
a general dodecahedron is a polyhedron having 12 faces. Acoustic examples are dodecahedron and hemi-dodecahedron loudspeakers arrange to provide isotropic
Dose related subjects
DOHR (noise dose per hour)
Dose - Noise
Dose per Hour
Dose - Vibration
Driving Point Impedance Definition IEC 801-25-17, quotient of a dynamic field quantity at one point in a system by the resulting kinematic field quantity at the same point
See also acoustic impedance and related topics
▫ Digital Signal Processing
Dual Input Room Acoustics Calculator
Duration of Shock Pulse
Dw ▫ weighted level difference
, all audio systems are limited by inherent noise at low levels and by overload distortion at high levels. The usable region between these two extremes is the dynamic range of the system. Expressed in dB.
Dyne, the force that will accelerate a 1 gram mass at the rate of 1 cm/s.
1 dyne = 1 g·cm/s2 = 10-5 kg·m/s2 = 10 μN
The Dyne was the old standard reference level for sound pressure (0.0002 dyne/cm²), the same reference level today is 20 micro Pascals, or 20 μPa
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