B : Sound and Vibration Terms, Definitions, Units, Measurements ...
Backward Curve Integration Method
for calculating reverberation time
from the impulse decay curve
, also known as the schroeder method
Early Decay Time (EDT), based on the impulse decay curve, 0 dB to -10 dB
T10 decay time, based on the impulse decay curve, -5 dB to -15 dB
T20 decay time, based on the impulse decay curve, -5 dB to -25 dB
T30 decay time, based on the impulse decay curve, -5 dB to -35 dB
Balanced Noise Criteria (NCB)
a refinement of the noise criteria
rating system. The rating is determined by the speech interference level
, resulting in the following classifications.
R is for Rumble
, if the spectrum is rich in low frequency sound.
H is for Hiss
, if the spectrum is rich in high frequency sound.
RV is for Rattle and Vibration
, if the low frequency spectra is likely to produce audible rattling in lightweight building elements.
Balance noise criteria also includes the 16 and 31.5 Hz octave bands
noise rating (NR) curves
and room criteria (RC)
Band a continuous range of frequencies between two limiting frequencies.
Band Pass Filter
covering a band of frequencies
from a lower cut-off frequency to an upper cut-off frequency. Outside the filter bandwidth, the signal is attenuated.
See also octave bands and third octave bands
the unit of atmospheric pressure
, equal to 1000 millibars, one million dynes per square centimetre, 100 kilopascal or 29.53 inches of mercury.
the human ear combines sounds of similar frequency into frequency bands, called critical bands
. Dr Zwicker
divided the audio spectrum into 24 critical bands and named the units 'barks'.
See also loudness.
Beat Definition IEC 801-23-14,
phenomenon that results from the linear or non-linear superposition of two or more waves of the same kind but of different frequencies.
Beat Frequency if two sound or vibration components are quite close together in frequency and are present at the same time at the same place, they will combine in such a way that their sum will vary in level at a rate equal to the difference in frequency between the two components. This phenomenon is known as beating and its frequency is the beat frequency.
hearing involving both ears
Binaural Recording uses two microphones spaced to simulate the listeners ears and usually transmitted separately to each ear of the listener. The results, using good quality headphones, can be very realistic.
See also • localisation and our head and torso simulator (HATS)
Bow Tie Correction
multispectral measurements for correlation
functions are performed using spectrum averaging
, half of the normal time record is set to zero. Accordingly correlation functions for continuous signals will decrease with the delay, so the bow tie correction
compensates for this.
British Standards (BS) are produced by the British Standards Institution, incorporated under a royal charter. Standards Organisations publications are copyright so we cannot reproduce them here. However they are readily available on the internet to purchase and download.
Buffer a memory location in a computer or digital instrument that is set aside for temporary storage of digital information while it is waiting to be processed.
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