A : Sound and Vibration Definitions, Terms, Units, Measurements ...
% Noise Dose
1/n octave analysis is performed on a fractional part of an octave where n is the variable. Commonly used values are 1/1, 1/3, 1/12 and 1/24-octave.
A/D Converter, converts a analogue signal to a digital signal.
also known as the A curve, A filter and A network
under Sound Absorption
AC Coupling is the connection of a signal from one circuit to another in a manner that rejects DC components.
See also • DC coupling.
is the ratio of acceleration to the applied force
is the rate of change of
and is a
The SI units are m/s2 or if using Imperial units then 'g' = 9.80665 m/s2 = 386.089 in/s2
angular frequency ω = 2·π·f, are related as follows
Velocity = a/ω and Displacement = v/ω so at 159 Hz an acceleration of 10 m/s2 = 0.01 m/s and = 10 μm.
This works for all frequencies, we chose 159 Hz to keep the numbers simple. We also have a
vibration nomogram for downloading.
If 1 N = 1 Kg·m/s2 it follows that m/s2 acceleration also equals N/kg Newtons per kilogram.
Amax is the maximum RMS acceleration.
Amin is the minimum RMS acceleration.
Amp is the maximum Peak acceleration.
aw is the time-averaged, frequency-weighted, single-axis vibration acceleration.
See also •
angular acceleration •
particle acceleration, used in acoustic wave theory.
Acceleration Definition IEC 113-01-38, vector quantity a = dv/dt, where v is velocity and t is time
● Note 1 the acceleration is related to a point described by its position vector. The point may localize a particle, or be attached to any other object such as a body or a wave.
● Note 2 the acceleration depends on the chosen reference frame.
● Note 3 the coherent SI unit of acceleration is metre per second squared, m/s².
The human response to acceleration covers a wide range from a few μm/s2 to tens of metres per second squared. The dB scale reduces this immense range to a manageable set of numbers, see the acceleration level units below.
Acceleration Level dB (La) = 20 lg (a/ao) dB re 1 µm/s2.
Acceleration Reference Level (ao) = 1 μm/s2 ≡ 0 dB (also defined in ISO 1683) *
An increase or decrease in acceleration of 20 dB = a factor of 10
An increase or decrease in acceleration of 40 dB = a factor of 100
An increase or decrease in acceleration of 60 dB = a factor of 1000 etc.
(Vibratory) Acceleration Level Definition IEC 801-22-09, logarithm of the ratio of a given (vibratory) acceleration to the reference acceleration. Acceleration level in decibels is 20 times the logarithm to the base ten of the ratio.
● Note 1 unless otherwise specified, the reference acceleration is 1 μm/s2 *
● Note 2 unless otherwise specified, the accelerations are understood to be expressed in RMS values.
* ISO 1683 also states 'in connection with structure-borne sound, a vibratory acceleration reference value of 10 μm/s2 is also in use'
See other • reference levels
and the IEC Definition of Level
Acceleration Equivalent Level (Aeq) a single number to represent the equivalent acceleration energy as it varies over a working day, measured in m/s2. For example Aeq8 = 2.5 m/s2 indicates a equivalent level of 2.5 m/s2 measured over an 8 hour shift.
To calculate the equivalent value for other periods use the formulae Aeq8 = a √T/8 where T = hours
Aeq4 and Aeq16 are also used in some vibration exposure applications.
See also •
hand arm vibration •
vibration at work regulations •
vibration dose value •
whole body vibration
Accelerometer a vibration sensor whose electrical output is directly proportional to the acceleration component of the vibration. The two most common accelerometer types are the traditional charge type and the IEPE : integrated electronic piezoelectric type with a built-in line-drive amplifier to enable the output signal to be transmitted over 'longer cable runs'.
ACGIH : American Conference of Industrial Hygienists
under sound absorption
See also acoustic impedance and related topics
Acoustic Calibrator, an instrument providing a reference noise source used to calibrate and check the performance of sound level meters.
Acoustic Coupler Definition IEC 801-28-03, a cavity of predetermined shape and volume used, for example, for the calibration of earphones or microphones in conjunction with a calibrated microphone adapted to measure the sound pressure developed within the cavity.
Acoustic Emission is the energy that is generated when materials are under stress or break.
under sound energy
Acoustic Impedance is the resistance to the flow of sound through a medium, analogous to Ohm's law in electrical theory and sometimes referred to as the acoustic ohm.
Acoustic Impedance (Z) is the ratio of the sound pressure to the volume velocity so Z = p/U
Acoustic Impedance Definition IEC 801-25-40,
at a specified surface, quotient of sound pressure by volume velocity through the surface
See also •
acoustic admittance •
acoustic ohm •
acoustic reactance •
acoustic resistance •
characteristic acoustic impedance •
characteristic impedance of a medium •
complex acoustic impedance •
conjugate impedances •
driving point impedance •
specific acoustic impedance •
specific acoustic reactance •
specific acoustic resistance •
specific wall admittance •
specific wall impedance •
under sound insulation
under sound intensity
Acoustic Louvres includes sound-attenuating baffles for reduction of airborne sound.
Acoustic Mass Definition IEC 801-25-43, at a frequency for which inertia is dominant, quotient of sound pressure by the resulting in-phase volume acceleration during sinusoidal motion, also known as inertance.
● Note acoustic mass has dimensions of mass divided by the square of area
See also • acoustic impedance and related topics
under sound power
under sound pressure
Acoustic Radiation Pressure Definition IEC 801-21-42, unidirectional steady pressure exerted on a surface by an acoustic wave.
Acoustic Reference Levels
Acoustic Reference Wind Speed
See also acoustic impedance and related topics
Acoustic Stiffness Definition IEC 801-25-44, in a system in which friction and inertia are negligible, quotient of sound pressure by the resulting in-phase volume displacement during sinusoidal motion.
Acoustic Streaming Definition IEC 801-23-43, unidirectional current in a fluid due to the presence of acoustic waves
Acoustic Trauma, damage to the hearing mechanism caused by a sudden burst of intense noise, or by a blast. The term usually implies a single traumatic event.
Acoustic Velocity Level
under particle velocity level
under sound waves
Active Noise Control, reducing unwanted sound electronically. When a sound wave of equal amplitude but opposite sign (180 degree out of phase) is added to the original sound - the result is sound cancellation.
Active Sound Fields
Active Sound Intensity
▷ adaptive pulse code modulation
Aeq ▷ acceleration equivalent value : Aeq4, Aeq8, Aeq16
Age Related Threshold Shift
▷ articulation index
Airborne Sound reaches the point of interest through air.
Airborne Sound Insulation Index (Ia''), former name for - weighted apparent sound reduction index, R'w
Air Condenser Microphones are widely used in noise measurements because they offer the best linearity, frequency range and high stability. Because of their importance we have prepared more details under measurement microphones
Algorithm a specific procedure for solving problems. An FFT - fast fourier transform is an algorithm.
Aliasing digital sampling requires the analogue signal to be sampled at twice the frequency of interest otherwise aliasing occurs. If the signal is not filtered to eliminate the high frequencies, they appear as 'false' lower frequency signals. Once 'introduced' these aliased signals cannot be distinguished from valid sampled data.
See also •
Amax under acceleration
Amin under acceleration
Amp under acceleration
Ampere (A) is the basic SI unit of electric current; the constant current that, when maintained in two parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible cross section placed 1 metre apart in free space, produces a force of 2 x 10-7 Newton per metre between them.
1 ampere is equivalent to 1 Coulomb per second.
Amplification Factor (Q) the mechanical gain of a structure when excited at a resonant frequency. The amplification factor is a function of the system damping. For a damping ratio = 0 (no damping) the amplification factor is infinite, for = 1 (critically damped) there is no amplification.
Amplitude Distribution a representation of time-varying noise indicating the percentage of time that the noise level is present in a series of amplitude intervals.
Amplitude Probability used to investigate the amplitude distribution of signals, also known as probability amplitude.
Analogue continuously variable physical quantity, such as a sound or vibration wave.
Analogue to Digital Converter, converts an analogue signal to a digital one. US spelling is analog.
Anechoic (without echo), refers to the absence of sound reflections. It is almost impossible to create a truly anechoic environment, as the perfect sound absorber does not exist. However the anechoic chamber can come close.
, echo free room, within specified limits. The walls are lined with sound absorbent
wedges to minimize reflections and create free-field
conditions, so direct sound measurements of test objects may be made. Low frequency measurements are restricted by the room dimensions and the sound absorbing materials 'wedges' used.
Anechoic Chamber Definition IEC 723-03-31,
room with no appreciable reverberation
, used for acoustic measurements
Anechoic Room Definition IEC 801-31-18, room whose boundaries absorb substantially all the sound incident thereon, thereby affording free-field conditions, also known as free field room.
Angle of Incidence IEC 705-0403, at a point on a surface, the acute angle between the normal to this surface and the direction of propagation of an incident wave
Angle of Reflection the angle measured from the reflected wave to the surface normal
Angle of Refraction
see sound wave refraction.
Angles are usually expressed in degrees or radians. Less often as Grads or Gradians (except on some electronic calculators)
| Degrees || 0° || 30° || 45° || 60°|| 90° || 180° || 270° || 360° |
| Radians || 0 || π/6 || π4 || π/3|| π/2 || π || 3 π/2 || 2π |
| Grads || 0g || 100g/3 || 50g || 200g/3 || 100g || 200g || 300g || 400g |
Angular physical properties or quantities measured with reference to an angle, especially those associated with rotation
Angular Deviation Loss Definition IEC 801-25-69, sensitivity level of the transducer on the principal axis minus the sensitivity level of the transducer for a specified direction
Angular Displacement (θ) is measured in radians rather than
degrees. This is because it provides a very simple relationship between distance travelled around the circle and the distance r from the centre.
θ = s/r = length of arc divided by the radius in radians
Angular Frequency (ω) is the frequency expressed in radians per second (rad/s). To convert a frequency in hertz to an angular frequency multiply by 2·π . For an oscillation with period T, the angular frequency ω = 2·π / T
Angular Momentum (L) is the quantity of rotation of a body, which is the product of the moment of Inertia and it's angular velocity, units newton metre seconds (N·m·s)
Angular Velocity (v) is the rate of change of angular position of a rotating body, units radians per second, rads/s
ANSI : American National Standards Institution
Anti-aliasing Filter an analogue low pass filter used before analogue to digital conversion to filter out the frequencies greater than half the sampling frequency and prevent aliasing .
See also • nyquist frequency.
Anti-resonance Definition IEC 801-24-07, phenomenon of a system in forced oscillation such that any change in the frequency of excitation, however small, results in an increase in a response of the system
● Note : the quantity that is the measure of response must be indicated; for example, velocity anti-resonance.
See also • resonance
Apodization Function also called a Tapering or Windowing. It provides a smooth amplitude weighting of a signal to zero at the beginning and the end of the record to be sampled. This suppresses leakage which would otherwise be produced upon performing a discrete fourier transform.
Apparent Sound Insulation Index (R')
Apparent Sound Power Level
Weighted Apparent Sound Reduction Index (R'w)
Area (A) a quantity expressing the two-dimensional size of a defined part of a surface.
Surface Area, refers to the total area of the exposed surface of a 3-dimensional solid.
The derived SI unit is the square metre, symbol m2
, 1 m2
= 1 m by 1 m or 2 m by 0.5 m, etc., 25 mm by 25 mm = 0.025 m by 0.025 m = 0.000625 m2
See also • cross section area
Artificial Ear Definition IEC 801-28-05,
device for the calibration of earphones, incorporating a calibrated microphone for the measurement of sound pressure
and an acoustic coupler
such that the overall acoustic impedance
is similar to that of the normal human ear in a given frequency band. Also known a an ear simulator
Artificial Mastoid Definition IEC 801-28-08,
device which simulates the mechanical impedance
of the average human mastoid where a bone vibrator may be applied to permit calibration of the vibrator. Also know as a mastoid simulator
Artificial Mouth Definition IEC 801-28-06,
device consisting of a loudspeaker unit mounted in a baffle or an enclosure so shaped as to have a radiation pattern similar to that of the average human mouth. Also known as a mouth simulator
generated by electrical or acoustical means to simulate that of concert halls, etc., Added to a signal to make it sound more lifelike.
Artificial Voice Definition IEC 801-28-07, complex sound
, usually emitted by an artificial mouth
corresponds to that of the average human voice, also known as a voice simulator
▷ age related threshold shift
ASHRAE : American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers
Asymmetric, a waveform not identical on both sides of the mean or zero line, lacks symmetry.
Atmospheric Sound Absorption
Atmospheric Pressure (atm) the force per unit area exerted on a surface by the weight of air above that surface.
Standard Atmospheric Pressure, at sea level, is equal to 101.325 kPa the preferred SI units or 8760 mmHg and 1013.25 millibars.
Audible Range, the human ear can respond to minute
sound pressure variations in the air if they are in the
frequency range, roughly 20 Hz - 20 kHz and wavelength 17 m to 0.017 mm.
Audible Sound Definition IEC 801-21-02,
a) acoustic oscillation of such character as to be capable of exciting a sensation of hearing
b) sensation of hearing excited by an acoustic oscillation or vibration
Audiogram a graph showing hearing loss as a function of frequency, measured with an audiometer.
Audiometer an instrument for testing hearing. Standard equipment in ENT, Audiometry and Audiology Centres.
IEC 801-31-20, room insulated against outside noise and having some sound absorption, intended for testing of hearing.
Autocorrelation is the correlation between values of a signal at different times. A signal processing tool for finding repeating patterns, such as the presence of a periodic signal(s) 'buried in noise'. It is frequently used for analysing time domain functions. It is the cross-correlation of a signal with itself.
Auto Scale the axes of a graph used to display time signal, spectra, post-processed functions, etc., are automatically set by the software to fit the full display into the available viewing area.
Average Sound Level
Average Sound Pressure - under effective sound pressure
Average Sound Pressure Level - in a room
Average Speech Power
aw under acceleration
Axial Mode, the room resonances associated with each pair of parallel walls in a rectangular room.
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